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The use of poison in Nature is an act of satanism. To give balance to ecosystems, Nature has invented, hundreds of millions of years ago, the top predators. NZ had in its forests until the 13th century, the biggest Eagle of the fossil record, the Haast’s Eagle. This Eagle was extinct after the extinction of the giant Moas. These amazing Birds could be introduced in NZ. These eagles hunt other predators, and are not afraid of almost anything. Prey specimens found at the eagle’s nest have ranged in size from a small bat weighing 10 g 0. All alien species of carnivores weighing up to 12 or 15 kg are easy prey for these eagles. Of course, these Eagles are diurnal predators.

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Shirey and James E. The loose crystals range from 1. Photo by Orasa Weldon. ABSTRACT It has been more than two decades since diamond ages have proven to be up to billions of years older than their host magmas of kimberlite or lamproite. Since then, there have been significant advances in the analysis of diamonds and their mineral inclusions, in the understanding of diamond-forming fluids in the mantle, and in the relationship of diamonds to the deep geology of the continents and the convecting mantle.

The occurrence of natural diamonds is remarkable and important to earth studies.

E-waste or electronic waste is created when an electronic product is discarded after the end of its useful life. The rapid expansion of technology means that a very large amount of e-waste is created every minute.. Electronic waste or e-waste may be defined as discarded computers, office electronic equipment, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, television sets, and refrigerators.

Jill was escorting her son Jarrett, then 4, to the doctor again. He had spent the day slumped in a stroller, looking so pale and fatigued that a stranger stopped her to ask if he was all right. For the previous three months, she had noticed her once-energetic preschooler deteriorating. He complained of pain in his knee, which grew excruciating. It migrated to his shoulder and then his leg.

His shins swelled, as did his temples. At night, Jarrett awoke drenched in sweat, screaming from spasms. Jill took him to a pediatrician and an infectious-disease specialist. A rheumatologist diagnosed him with anemia. Tests confirmed a blood count so low that she was instructed to get him to an emergency room immediately. Doctors identified a common form of childhood leukemia.

In the rancorous world of toxic-tort litigation, he stands virtually alone. A lawsuit filed by his parents in against Southeast Terminals owners BP and TransMontaigne is among a relatively few alleging leukemia caused by environmental benzene exposure.

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Paul Berry After building the product for Huffington Post, and owning the product and engineering groups at AOL after we were acquired, it was clear to me there was a huge gap between what the current CMS offering gave the world and what the world needed. Five years later we are at scale, moving the needle and doing to WordPress what Airbnb did to Craigslist.

Social and Centralized WordPress, Drupal, and the custom CMS solutions of the world are all independent, non-connected instances that each need to be updated individually. There are over 87 million instances of WordPress alone in the world, and each security upgrade, feature update, and every other single thing has to be updated for each site individually.

The following article has been generously contributed by Tyler of Debt Reckoning – Get out of debt, build wealth, and get on with life.. Every good survivalist has a stockpile of things he or she recognizes their family may need to survive a natural or man-made disaster.

History[ edit ] In , iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois , [5] [6] who was born to a manufacturer of saltpeter an essential component of gunpowder. At the time of the Napoleonic Wars , saltpeter was in great demand in France. Saltpeter produced from French nitre beds required sodium carbonate , which could be isolated from seaweed collected on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany.

To isolate the sodium carbonate, seaweed was burned and the ash washed with water. The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid. Courtois once added excessive sulfuric acid and a cloud of purple vapour rose. He noted that the vapour crystallised on cold surfaces, making dark crystals. They described the substance to a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France. The scarce and fugitive fifth halogen, the radioactive astatine , is not well-studied due to its expense and inaccessibility in large quantities, but appears to show various unusual properties due to relativistic effects.

Iodine has an electron configuration of [Kr]4d s25p5, with the seven electrons in the fifth and outermost shell being its valence electrons. Like the other halogens, it is one electron short of a full octet and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell, although in keeping with periodic trends , it is the weakest oxidising agent among the stable halogens: Elemental iodine hence forms diatomic molecules with chemical formula I2, where two iodine atoms share a pair of electrons in order to each achieve a stable octet for themselves; at high temperatures, these diatomic molecules reversibly dissociate a pair of iodine atoms.

This trend occurs because the wavelengths of visible light absorbed by the halogens increase down the group though astatine may not conform to it, depending on how metallic it turns out to be.

16 SHTF Barter Items to Stockpile

In this paper, we report on the first use of 81Kr to determine the age of groundwater from four wells in the Great Artesian Basin in Australia. As the concentration of 81Kr in old groundwater is only a few hundred atoms per liter, krypton was extracted from large 16 l groundwater samples and was analyzed for the isotopic abundance of 81Kr by accelerator mass spectrometry AMS with a cyclotron.

The observed reduction of isotope ratios in the groundwater samples can then be interpreted as being due to radioactive decay since recharge. This results in respective groundwater ages of:

By the start of the 20th century, most astronomers recognized that Mars was far colder and drier than Earth. The presence of oceans was no longer accepted, so the paradigm changed to an image of Mars as a “dying” planet with only a meager amount of water.

Available online 2 December 2 December Publisher Summary The concentration of stable isotopes in groundwater depends mainly on the origin of the water. The concentration of radioactive isotopes and dissolved compounds in groundwater depends on the initial concentration and residence time of groundwater in the aquifer. These two factors determine the amount of radioactive isotope s decayed, removed, or added during water-rock processes.

As geochemical tools, stable and radioactive environmental isotopes provide information on the geochemical processes operating on groundwater and on the hydrogeological characteristics of aquifers. Information provided by environmental isotopes is also useful in modeling groundwater systems. This chapter discusses the scientific background of applications of environmental isotope techniques to groundwater hydrology.

The stable isotope composition of groundwater reflects that of the precipitation in the recharge area that seeps through the soil and the unsaturated zone to reach the water table. Stable isotopes are often used to identify groundwater recharge by rivers and lakes. These water bodies frequently have isotopic compositions different from that of precipitation over the study area.

Chapter 7 – Isotopes in Groundwater Hydrology

High-energy cosmic ray particles collide with atoms in the earth’s atmosphere producing protons and neutrons. After the emission of other particles to lower the energy state, the final result is either a stable element or a long-lived radioactive isotope. Roughly two thirds of atmospheric 36Cl is produced by the following spallation reaction:

Chlorine 36 dating of very old groundwater: 2. Herczeg, L. Sampson, R. G. Cresswell and L. K. Fifield, Sources of chloride and implications for 36Cl dating of old groundwater, Southwestern Great Strontium isotopic evidence on the chemical evolution of pore waters in the Milk River Aquifer, Alberta, .

These could of been made by a sub-contracter or later Biolytix themselves. One system I rebuilt had an excess of peat 2 wheelbarrows. This unit has a lower sump than the later models most had the sump inspection point with overflow. They were fitted the old alarm and the small air switch with a air accumulator a small white cannister in air system. But we have others that were rebuilt twice. The Everhard tanks used by Biolytix were changed because the was discontinued due to a change in the Australian Standards at that time.

Biolytix Technologies became Biolytix Water. All the above tanks could flood effluent through the electrical box, particularly where a high head pressure could force the liquid through the top of the lid. The air pump sits on rubber strips in the box but if the box had moisture in it, the air intake, which is on the bottom of the air pump, sucks it in and kills it. This cured some of the sump problems but there appeared at this time, some of the problems were not the sump, but the bed its self.

The Sumo pump changed with the capacitor inbuilt I believe a step backward. The air bleed which I have spoke of before was and still a problem.

Polychlorinated biphenyl

These were sold under trade names followed by a four-digit number. In general, the first two digits refer to the number of carbon atoms in the biphenyl skeleton for PCBs this is 12 ; the second two numbers indicate the percentage of chlorine by mass in the mixture. Aroclor was prepared by the fractional distillation of Aroclor , which excluded the higher boiling i. In electrical equipment manufacturing in the USA, Aroclor and Aroclor were the main mixtures used before ; Aroclor was the main mixture used in the s and s until it was phased out in and replaced by Aroclor

CHLORINE DATING OF OLD GROUNDWA TER Fred M. Phillips New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology Socorro, NM, USA Basic Principles of 36Cl Chlorine has been widely used for dating old groundw ater.

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Principles of isotopic dating All absolute isotopic ages are based on radioactive decay , a process whereby a specific atom or isotope is converted into another specific atom or isotope at a constant and known rate. Most elements exist in different atomic forms that are identical in their chemical properties but differ in the number of neutral particles—i.

For a single element, these atoms are called isotopes. Because isotopes differ in mass, their relative abundance can be determined if the masses are separated in a mass spectrometer see below Use of mass spectrometers. Radioactive decay can be observed in the laboratory by either of two means: The particles given off during the decay process are part of a profound fundamental change in the nucleus. To compensate for the loss of mass and energy , the radioactive atom undergoes internal transformation and in most cases simply becomes an atom of a different chemical element.

In terms of the numbers of atoms present, it is as if apples changed spontaneously into oranges at a fixed and known rate. In this analogy , the apples would represent radioactive, or parent, atoms, while the oranges would represent the atoms formed, the so-called daughters. Pursuing this analogy further, one would expect that a new basket of apples would have no oranges but that an older one would have many.

Water on Mars

What do you think? Above us are yellow fields of oilseed rape. Below is the maze of reinforced concrete tunnels that, if it wins final approval from the French government, will from be the last resting place for the most destructive and indestructible waste in history.

Chlorine dating of deep groundwater from northern Sahara. Author links open overlay panel Abdelhamid FontesComment on “Chlorine dating of very old groundwater, 3, L.K. FifieldSources of chloride and implications for 36 Cl dating of old groundwater, southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Water Resource Research,

Comments Read by 63, people The following article has been generously contributed by Tyler of Debt Reckoning — Get out of debt, build wealth, and get on with life. Every good survivalist has a stockpile of things he or she recognizes their family may need to survive a natural or man-made disaster. However, many people forget the value of maintaining a barter store as well. However, what we can do is have some items on hand to barter with neighbors to plug gaps in our preparations.

Imagine a neighbor with a large garden and some chickens trading a half dozen eggs and some squash for a box of ammo, or a small bottle of Vodka. Consider stocking up on the following items, even if you have no plans to use them yourself, for their potential barter value. Having said that, I recognize that in a SHTF situation many others will be cut off from their access to cigarettes, so there is plenty of barter potential.

However, it is also a good idea to store extra ammo in common calibers 9mm,. After all, a gun without ammo is just an inacurate throwing object. Alcohol could serve a variety of purposes in a SHTF situation. It is valuable as a potential bartering commodity, and it also has medicinal uses. Did you know Vodka is a great home remedy to counteract the reaction to poison ivy? More portable and easier to barter than larger 5-gallon buckets, or even 10 cans of dried foods, MREs are great to have on hand for bartering.

Keep a variety of flavors and different kinds of foods because you could be holding something that could complete a meal for a hungry person.

Chapter 7 – Isotopes in Groundwater Hydrology

Cathode ray tubes used in TVs, computer monitors, ATM, video cameras, and more Breaking and removal of yoke, then dumping Lead, barium and other heavy metals leaching into the ground water and release of toxic phosphor Printed circuit board image behind table — a thin plate on which chips and other electronic components are placed De-soldering and removal of computer chips; open burning and acid baths to remove metals after chips are removed.

Air emissions and discharge into rivers of glass dust, tin, lead, brominated dioxin, beryllium cadmium, and mercury Chips and other gold plated components Chemical stripping using nitric and hydrochloric acid and burning of chips PAHs, heavy metals, brominated flame retardants discharged directly into rivers acidifying fish and flora.

Tin and lead contamination of surface and groundwater.

Chlorine 36 has many advantages as a dating tool for very old groundwater. These advantages include a suitable half‐life ( × 10 5 years), simple geochemistry, conservative behavior in groundwater, and a general absence of subsurface sources at levels comparable to the atmospheric input.

But the city’s water department sees it as a potentially high-level hazard, requiring a permit and annual inspections that can be a big surprise, especially to homeowners who are inheriting an irrigation system along with a new house. As gardeners get their systems turned back on for spring, here are some things they need to know about staying within the law and maintaining a healthy water supply to their homes — and their neighbors’.

What does the city government require for operation of a sprinkler system? A permit must be obtained for the system when it is installed. At that point, the city has a record of the sprinkler system. Then, every year, the backflow preventer on the system must be checked by a registered inspector who reports the inspection to the city. Every five years, along with the inspection, the backflow valve must be rebuilt, because its parts start to deteriorate.

Chlorine-36 Meaning

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